In 1954, a young Princeton University doctoral candidate named Hugh Everett III came up with a radical idea: That there exist parallel universes, exactly like our universe. These universes are all related to ours; indeed, they branch off from ours, and our universe is branched off of others. Within these parallel universes, our wars have had different outcomes than the ones we know. Species that are extinct in our universe have evolved and adapted in others. In another disparate opposite universe, Donald Trump is a highly intelligent, articulate, highly respected, and beloved human being. Crazy stuff.
This thought boggles the mind and yet, it is still comprehensible. Notions of parallel universes that resemble our own have appeared in works ofand have been used as explanations for what is currently seen as pseudo-scientific metaphysics. But why would a young up-and-coming physicist possibly risk his future career by posing a theory about parallel universes?
With his Many-Worlds theory, Everett was attempting to answer a rather sticky question related to quantum physics: Why does quantum matter behave erratically? The quantum level is the smallest one science has detected so far. The study of quantum physics began in 1900 when the physicist Max Planck first introduced the concept to the scientific world. Planck’s study of radiation yielded some unusual findings that contradicted classical. These findings suggested that there are other laws at work in the universe, operating on a deeper level than the one we know.
The multiverse is a theory in which our universe is not the only one, but states that many universes exist parallel to each other. This line of thinking is that there is an infinite number of universes with every possible combination of reality. If it is the case that one universe would be significantly advanced to destroy all other parallel universes, there would also be a universe that is advanced enough to save all other parallel universes from the impending doom from the first state one, and there would be another universe that could time travel to prevent the destruction of all parallel universes after it happens. In short for every possibility there is a corresponding counter to it, or not. Some universes statistically have to be filled with uncaring jerks. Is it ours?
Readers Note: Please read through the discussion and descriptions of the 4 types of parallel universes. It will make the whole point of this article clearer when you get to the section entitled “Hypothetical Construct of Reality, Dreams, Aliens and Fortean Phenomena“
These kinds of high-powered infinities come in 4 distinct levels.
Level 1: If you go far enough, you’ll get back home
The idea of Level 1 parallel universes basically says that space is so big that the rules of probability imply that surely, somewhere else out there, are other planets exactly like Earth. In fact, an infinite universe would have infinitely many planets, and on some of them, the events that play out would be virtually identical to those on our own Earth.
We don’t see these other universes because our cosmic vision is limited by the speed of light — the ultimate speed limit. The light started travelling at the moment of the big bang, about 14 billion years ago. It is estimated that the diameter of the observable universe is about 93 billion light-years, putting the edge of the observable universe at about 46–47 billion light-years away and so we can’t see any further than about 46 billion light-years. This volume of space is called the Hubble volume and represents our observable universe. The assumption is that our volume of space is only a representative sample of the whole and that distant, alien beings see different volumes but all these look basically the same apart from some random variation in the distribution of matter. Together, these regions form a basic type of universe known as Level 1 parallel universe.
The existence of Level 1 parallel universes depends on two assumptions:
- The universe is infinite (or virtually so).
- Within an infinite universe, every single possible configuration of particles in a Hubble volume takes place multiple times.
If Level 1 parallel universes do exist, reaching one is virtually (but not entirely) impossible. For one thing, we wouldn’t know where to look for one because, by definition, a Level 1 parallel universe is so far away that no message can ever get from us to them, or them to us. (Remember, we can only get messages from within our own Hubble volume.)
Level 2: If you go far enough, you’ll fall into wonderland
In a Level 2 parallel universe, regions of space are continuing to undergo an inflation phase. Because of the continuing inflationary phase in these universes, space between us and the other universes is literally expanding faster than the speed of light — and they are, therefore, completely unreachable.
Two possible theories present reasons to believe that Level 2 parallel universes may exist: eternal inflation and ekpyrotic theory. In eternal inflation the quantum fluctuations in the early universe’s vacuum energy caused bubble universes to be created all over the place, expanding through their inflation stages at different rates. The initial condition of these universes is assumed to be at a maximum energy level, although at least one variant, chaotic inflation, predicts that the initial condition can be chaotically chosen as any energy level, which may have no maximum, and the results will be the same. The findings of eternal inflation mean that when inflation starts, it produces not just one universe, but an infinite number of universes.
The Universe that we know of may be one of many “bubbles” floating in an empty background. Here, the laws of physics may vary from bubble to bubble. Scientists are not sure how the ‘space-time‘ is shaped, but most likely, it’s flat – as opposed to spherical – and stretches out infinitely. But if space-time goes on forever, logically it must start repeating at some point, because there are infinite number of ways particles can be arranged in space and time. In other words, within an infinite universe, every single possible configuration of particles in a Hubble volume takes place multiple times – resulting in the creation of multiple universes.
Sounds strange, but according to the multiverse theory, if you look far enough, you would encounter another version of you — in fact, infinite versions of you. Some of these twins will be doing exactly what you’re doing right now, while others may have worn a different shirt this morning, and who knows – still, others will have even made vastly different career and life choices.
Right now, the only noninflationary model that carries any kind of weight is the ekpyrotic model, which is so new that it’s still highly speculative and generally misunderstood.
In the ekpyrotic theory picture, if the universe is the region that results when two branes collide, then the branes could actually collide in multiple locations. Consider flapping a sheet up and down rapidly onto the surface of a bed. The sheet doesn’t touch the bed only in one location but rather touches it in multiple locations. If the sheet were a brane, then each point of collision would create its own universe with its own initial conditions. There’s no reason to expect that branes collide in only one place, so the ekpyrotic theory makes it very probable that there are other universes in other locations, expanding even as you consider this possibility.
Level 3: If you stay where you are, you’ll run into yourself
A Level 3 parallel universe is a consequence of the many worlds interpretation (MWI) from quantum physics in which every single quantum possibility inherent in the quantum wave function becomes a real possibility in some reality. When the average person (especially a science fiction fan) thinks of a “parallel universe,” he’s probably thinking of Level 3 parallel universes.
Level 3 parallel universes are different from the others posted because they take place in the same space and time as our own universe, but you still have no way to access them. You have never had and will never have contact with any Level 1 or Level 2 universe (we assume), but you’re continually in contact with Level 3 universes — every moment of your life, every decision you make, is causing a split of your “now” self into an infinite number of future selves, all of which are unaware of each other.
Though we talk of the universe “splitting,” this isn’t precisely true. From a mathematical standpoint, there’s only one wave function, and it evolves over time. The superposition of different universes all coexist simultaneously in the same infinite-dimensional space. These separate, coexisting universes interfere with each other, yielding the bizarre quantum behaviours.
Of the four types of universes, Level 3 parallel universes have the least to do with string theory directly.
Level 4: Somewhere over the rainbow, there’s a magical land
A Level 4 parallel universe is the strangest place (and most controversial prediction) of all because it would follow fundamentally different mathematical laws of nature than our universe. In short, any universe that physicists can get to work out on paper would exist, based on the mathematical democracy principle: Any universe that is mathematically possible has equal possibility of actually existing. In other words, it is just like the permutations and combinations. Everything that could/can/have the chance of happening at any point of time.
Hypothetical Construct of Reality, Dreams, Aliens and Fortean Phenomena
What if there is a more bizarre parallel universe hypothesis that takes into account that elusive quality we call consciousness. A scenario that among being bizarre and counter-intuitive may explain some aspects of weird, strange, supernal, paradoxical nature of what we all call reality.
“To die, to sleep – to sleep, perchance to dream – ay, there’s the rub, for in this sleep of death what dreams may come…” ~ Hamlet
A possible glimpse into the true nature of the ecliptic occulted world we all blindly wander through from cradle to grave and possibly beyond. What I mean is, if it can be imagined, thought of, or conceived, then it actually does exist in a parallel Universe. This is in line with the hypothesis of a level 4 parallel universe.
If it can be envisioned it can be received and explored.
When you are dreaming, you are in effect, exploring a new Universe (a different current in the river of infinite possibility) but not committing to one. As a logical extension, you are in a different universe a disparate current of possible realities. Every instance of time breaks off and you have access to new headwaters of infinite possibilities. In every smallest instance of time (Planck Time), a new branch of reality can be explored. I do not think we are creating the realities as we go along. By our choices and quantum states, we are navigating the rivers of infinity not creating them. In an infinite universe, all things in all variations are real in past present and future temporal geometry. All are the same. It is our perceptions that make it one of the temporal options.
When we look into parallel universes, we are actually looking into phases of uncountable timelines. Which means there is a spectrum of timelines. Albert Einstein says we can actually get access to a particular location on this timeline as we wish anytime. He was in the mindset of the clockwork universe but we can extrapolate from there to mean there is no distinction between past, present and future.
If dreams are a type of exploration of the possible universal outcomes all without buying the tickets and actually going. Then I hypothesize that belief is the fare and the journey.
What we believe without reservation is what becomes real in our personal experience of the Universe. Many many people believe in a God of some form. They know he/it/thing is real. Just as real this keyboard I am touching is right now. You can’t convince them otherwise. To them, it is a truism. Their belief makes it real to them.
Then for people like myself that are atheists, we know God and other deities do not exist. I as well as others with the same belief know this to be true. Magic does not exist. Just science we have not discovered yet.
Who is right? Both are right.
The differences in what both parties believe to be real are correct, just on different rivers of universal realities.
Imagine this…In the last few decades, there have been movements pertaining to the religious faithful in regards to the much-anticipated Rapture. The time when the dead will rise and the faithful will get whisked away to heaven and Nirvana. Over time many highly trusted religious leaders have come forth and have actually given a date and time for when the Rapture will occur. In 1936 Herbert W. Armstrong the founder of the Worldwide Church of God told members of his church that the Rapture was to take place in 1936 and that only they would save.
For the true believers of this prediction that had no doubts at all, I postulate that in 1936 the Rapture did indeed occur. They were reunited with their God. But to anybody else who did not believe they were still here, they were just wrong. To the non-believer, their chosen construct was where it was just fantasy. But it wasn’t to them. Belief makes reality.
If you truly believe in ghosts or UFO’s your journey through reality will choose through belief the paths where they are real. If you truly believe these things are no different than a chair or table in regards to what is solid and real.
Two or more people can witness the same phenomena such as a UFO sighting if they are of like minds and beliefs. For a brief moment, they experience the same things. Maybe belief and respect in the other witnesses involved play a role in what realities roll out. This is how and why photographs or video can be taken by multiple observers of a UFO or ghost sighting. And also the reason why that same image or footage could be shown to someone else and not be believed or respected, they are on a different path where that kind of thing is not possible.
In the vastness of infinity, all things are real. Just not all things are real to all people.
It may be impossible for people to accept the apparent paradoxes that such brain games illicit. But it could account for why people can believe in such disparate things. I obviously have no idea if any of this true or not but it is interesting nonetheless…
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